By John Anthony Considine, Elizabeth Frankish
Because the wine has skilled a interval of quick international enlargement, there's a renewed emphasis on caliber and consistency even in the small vineyard undefined. Written for the small creation application, a whole advisor to caliber in Small-Scale Wine Making is for the beginner to intermediate point winemaker looking foundational info in chemistry and sensory technology as they relate to wine caliber at a technical level.
Drawing from own event in addition to medical literature, this booklet introduces the center innovations of winemaking earlier than delving into equipment and research to supply functional insights into developing and preserving caliber within the wine product.
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Extra info for A Complete Guide to Quality in Small-Scale Wine Making
Wine is saturated with oxygen at about 6 mL/L (more at low, less at high temperature). , 1996). The capacity of white wine to absorb oxygen is about one-tenth of that of red wines owing to the absence of flavanols and ellagic tannins (from oak). White wines that had absorbed 60 mL/L of oxygen were clearly brown and maderized. However, red wines generally improved up to and even well beyond this level of oxidation. , 2006). Three aspects of oxygen in wine that require further consideration are browning, aldehyde formation and condensation reactions.
1 is due, presumably, to the metabolism of malic acid to lactic acid, which buffers at a lower pH and reduces the overall acidity available as a buffer ([malate22] 2[H1] vs [lactate12] 1[H1]) as a contribution to the denominator of Equation (1). However, a winemaker will usually make the main adjustments as early as possible in order to maximize the ‘integration’ of the acid with the remainder of the products—it is easy to imagine the extremely complex interactions between the myriad ionic ions and compounds that exist in a juice/wine; it is not as simple as adjusting the pH of a standard solution.
3). pH is critically important as it determines the proportion of phenolate ions, the reactive state of a phenol, present in the wine; lower is better. At pH 4, the concentration of phenolate ions is about 10-fold that at pH 3 and therefore high pH wines oxidize rapidly and do not age well (Singleton, 1987). It is the quinones of the dihydroxyphenols and trihydroxyphenols that are primarily responsible for the production of the yellow to brown pigments, although monohydroxyphenols such as coumaric acid may also be involved.