A Handbook of Transcription Factors by T.R. Hughes (auth.), Timothy R. Hughes (eds.)

By T.R. Hughes (auth.), Timothy R. Hughes (eds.)

The foremost aim of “A guide of Transcription elements” is to supply a source encompassing significant points of the molecular biology of TFs. As a instruction manual, this quantity is meant to supply a vast review of this more and more complicated field, and is aimed toward delivering normal context instead of fine information of specific examples. After a long time of research of TFs on the molecular point, over 100,000 TF-related courses on Medline, enormous quantities of genome sequences, and non-stop technological advances, a entire assessment on TFs isn't attainable, even in booklet layout. and because such a lot experiences specialize in specific subject matters, it may be difficult to get a viewpoint on what's recognized, what's no longer identified, and what the worldwide difficulties are. themes during this ebook comprise the TF repertoire in either prokaryotes and eukaryotes, TF concentrating on and specificity, the houses of regulatory series, the interplay of TFs with chromatin, and mechanisms of TF motion. The chapters are written through a crew of specialists, and spotlight the present kingdom of information and learn, in addition to a variety of demanding situations. i am hoping that this booklet will function a advisor and reference for readers of all levels.
Contents
1 advent to “A guide of Transcription Factors”
2 an summary of Prokaryotic Transcription Factors
3 a list of Eukaryotic Transcription issue forms, Their Evolutionary starting place, and Species Distribution
4 functionality and Evolution of C2H2 Zinc Finger Arrays
5 Homeodomain Subtypes and practical Diversity
6 Nuclear Receptors: Small Molecule Sensors that Coordinate development, Metabolism and Reproduction
7 equipment for research of Transcription issue DNA-Binding Specificity In Vitro
8 Identification of Transcription Factor–DNA Interactions In Vivo
9 How Transcription elements establish Regulatory websites in Genomic Sequence
10 Transcription issue Binding websites and different gains in Human and Drosophila Proximal Promoters
11 Interactions of Transcription components with Chromatin
12 Transcription issue Effector Domains
13 Large-Scale Nuclear structure and Transcriptional keep an eye on

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Members of the metazoan-specific nuclear receptor family (see Chapter 6) control a wide range of physiological processes. In particular, nuclear receptors act as hormone and environmental sensors, responding to lipophilic molecules such as fatty acids, vitamins and steroids [33]. Nuclear receptors originally were thought to have originated in metazoans, but a recent study suggests they might have emerged early during eukaryotic evolution [34]. GATA family TFs, which contain two adjacent zinc fingers, are named after their consensus recognition sequence (WGATAR) [35, 36].

The homeodomain family consists of dozens of subfamilies, including (among many others) Hox proteins, which are well-known for their control of developmental processes in metazoan genomes [41], and POU proteins (such as Oct4, the classical marker of Embryonic Stem cells and one of the four “Yamanaka factors” [42]), which contain a separate, structurally homologous POU HTH domain along with a homeodomain [43]. In addition to the basic tri-helical core, a wide variety of modifications and additions to the HTH structural motif have arisen, most notably the winged helixturn-helix (wHTH) motif, which adds a β-strand hairpin unit [44].

Reinhardtii V. carteri C. merolae P. ramorum P. tetraurelia T. gondii P. falciparum C. parvum T. cruzi L. major N. gruberi G. lamblia T. vaginalis D. cinerea H. capsulatum N. crassa S. pombe C. albicans S. cerevisiae P. graminis R. oryzae E. Cuniculi C. elegans B. T. R. Hughes C2H2 ZF bZIP Myb/SANT bHLH Homeodom. HSF MADS box CBF/NF-Y GATA ARID/BRIGHT SART-1 TBP Zinc cluster APSES Forkhead Nuc. receptor CENPB Pipsqueak Paired box CSL TEA GCM IRF GTF2I-like p53 Prospero STAT Rel AP-2 SMAD T-box Ets THAP finger CUT DM POU CxxC C2HC ZF Runt Ndt80/PhoG Grainyhead FAR1 RFX IBD GCR1 AFT VHR1 MAT α1 Rap1 Copper fist AP2 CSD E2F MADF CxC DP mTERF ABF1 BBR S1FA Leafy CG-1 Brinker WRKY PLATZ α70 SBP B3 LOB Dof Whirly NAC/NAM TCP GRAS EIN3 Storekeeper SAND MBD AT hook NFX 50 100 600 Number of TFs 3 A Catalogue of Eukaryotic Transcription Factor Types 31 MyoD TFs, which control skeletal muscle development [29], and the bZIP family includes the Jun and Fos proteins, which are well known for their roles in cancer progression [30].

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