A Study of Growth and Decline. Urban Europe by Leo van den Berg

By Leo van den Berg

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It is in this period, too, that people begin to live out of town while working in the city. The movement is started by small wellto-do groups who, in terms of time, income, and transport facilities, can afford to move out, and it develops into an inverse migration flow fast growing in volume. To the people involved, living in a quiet rural environment is important enough to outweigh the sacrifice of the money and time required for bridging the distance to their work and the provisions of the town.

Then individual railway lines were combined in a nationwide network. In contrast to the railway, the road system was generally of poor quality. Horses used as draft animals still provided the basic means of transport, as motoring was still in the future. Some steps were undertaken to prepare the economic integration of these countries; primarily this involved the industrialization of what had earlier been fully agrarian regions. Hence the incentive given to the alloca­ tion of new industries outside the existing industrial centres.

The dynamics of industrial behaviour An industry will be established at a site where, given all the location factors and taking into account the level of transport and communication costs in particular, it can achieve its objective of profitable continuity to an optimum extent. Obviously expectations about future developments of the principal factors will be a consideration; nevertheless it can happen that a once optimum location for various reasons becomes sub-optimum after a time. Let us examine some of the reasons for this.

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