By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
Advances in Photovoltaics: Part Four presents beneficial info at the demanding situations confronted through the transformation of our strength offer approach to extra effective, renewable energies.
The quantity discusses the subject from a world point of view, providing the newest info on photovoltaics, a cornerstone technology.
It covers all elements of this significant semiconductor expertise, reflecting at the large and dynamic advances which were made in this subject considering that 1975, whilst the 1st booklet on sun cells-written via Harold J. Hovel of IBM-was released as quantity eleven within the now recognized sequence on Semiconductors and Semimetals.
Readers will achieve a backstage examine the continual and speedy medical improvement that results in the required rate and value discounts in international business mass-production.
- Written via prime, across the world recognized specialists on his topic
- Provides an in-depth review of the present prestige and views of skinny movie PV technologies
- Discusses the demanding situations confronted throughout the transformation of our strength provide process to extra effective, renewable energies
- Delves deep into photovoltaics, a cornerstone technolog
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Additional resources for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4
The argon generates a cold spot in the center of the melt surface and triggers a strong surface tension-driven flow (Marangoni flow), which improves melt mixing substantially. By nature, the VGF configuration shows stable density stratification and convective melt flow is driven by radial temperature gradients only. Welldefined convective flows help to remove accumulated impurities in front 40 Peter Dold of the growing interface and they enhance the heat transport. In conclusion, a well-designed argon flow stabilizes the growth process.
28. 800 equipment and process know-how are under development for the open market. , Topsil in Denmark or Wacker in Germany. They use in-house hardware, in-house process know-how, and in the case of Wacker, even in-house feedstock. Some years ago, SunPower had planned to go for high-efficiency solar cells based on FZ material, but stopped these activities. One reason was that they could not secure sufficient feedstock supply. In the early days, FZ wafers had always been the ultimate reference material for cell testing.
Energy Mater. Cells 72, 41–48. , 1994. Apparatus for continuously feeding material to a melting, crucible. 5,360,480. , 2009. Verfahren zur Herstellung von polykristallinen Siliziumsta¨ben und polykristalliner Siliziumstab. DE 10 2007 041 803 A1. , 2013. Systems and processes for continuous growing of ingots. 2013. , 2012. Weir design providing optimal purge gas flow, melt control, and temperature stabilization for improved single crystal growth in a continuous Czochralski process. US 8,262,797 B1.