Alternative Energy by Wynell Graves

By Wynell Graves

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E. 85% ethanol + 15% gasoline)in the USA. However, in Brazil all vehicle manufacturers (Fiat, Ford, VW, GM, Toyota, Honda, Peugeot, Citroen and others) produce flex fuel vehicles that can run on 100% ethanol or any mix of ethanol and gasoline. These flex fuel cars represent 90% of the sales of personal vehicles in Brazil, in 2009. 5%v/v in US gasoline". David Ramey drove from Blacklick, Ohio to San Diego, California using butanol in an unmodified 1992 Buick Park Avenue. In the 2009 Petit Le Mans race, the No.

Addition of water to the double bond converts ethene to ethanol: C2H4 + H2O → CH3CH2OH This is done in the presence of an acid which catalyzes the reaction, but is not consumed. The ethene is produced from petroleum by steam cracking. When ethanol is burned in the atmosphere rather than in pure oxygen, other chemical reactions occur with different components of the atmosphere such as nitrogen (N2). This leads to the production of nitrous oxides, a major air pollutant. Sources Sugar cane harvest Cornfield in South Africa Switchgrass Ethanol is a renewable energy source because the energy is generated by using a resource, sunlight, which can't be depleted.

According to the International Energy Agency, cellulosic ethanol could allow ethanol fuels to play a much bigger role in the future than previously thought. Chemistry Structure of ethanol molecule. All bonds are single bonds Glucose (a simple sugar) is created in the plant by photosynthesis. 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 During ethanol fermentation, glucose is decomposed into ethanol and carbon dioxide. C6H12O6 → 2 C2H5OH+ 2 CO2 + heat During combustion ethanol reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and heat: C2H5OH + 3 O2 → 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + heat After doubling the combustion reaction because two molecules of ethanol are produced for each glucose molecule, and adding all three reactions together, there are equal numbers of each type of molecule on each side of the equation, and the net reaction for the overall production and consumption of ethanol is just: light → heat The heat of the combustion of ethanol is used to drive the piston in the engine by expanding heated gases.

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