American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science by John Krige

By John Krige

In 1945, the U.S. was once not just the most powerful monetary and army energy on the earth; it was once additionally the world's chief in technological know-how and know-how. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of technology in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures within the usa to version postwar clinical practices and associations in Western Europe on these in the United States. They mobilized political and fiscal aid to advertise not only America's medical and technological agendas in Western Europe yet its chilly warfare political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing at the paintings of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this try out at clinical dominance by means of the usa may be obvious as a kind of "consensual hegemony," concerning the collaboration of influential neighborhood elites who shared American values. He makes use of this concept to investigate a sequence of case experiences that describe how the united states management, senior officials within the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO technological know-how Committee, and influential contributors of the clinical establishment--notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia collage and Vannevar Bush of MIT--tried to Americanize medical practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations examine. He information U.S. aid for associations together with CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif close to Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's research exhibits how consensual hegemony in technological know-how not just served the pursuits of postwar eu reconstruction yet grew to become in a different way of retaining American management and "making the realm secure for democracy."

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The suggestion came from the Research and Development Board (RDB), newly embedded in the National Military Establishment (NME). The NME was one of the bodies created by the National Security Act of July 1947. This act responded to Truman’s changing perceptions of the Soviet Union and of the threat Communism posed to European stability and democracy. 51 The prime task of the board was to coordinate military research and development that was already being done in each of the armed services. The wartime head of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Vannevar Bush was appointed chairman of the Joint RDB in June 1946, and Science and the Marshall Plan 31 when it was renamed in 1947, he agreed to stay on for one year.

25 million troops and was spending $3 billion annually to fulfill its worldwide commitments—a situation impossible to sustain in the winter crisis). Washington judged that if the United States did not intervene, the Greek Communists would capitalize on the ensuing unrest, seize power, and align the country with the Soviet Union. Democratic forces throughout Europe would be demoralized, domestic Communist parties in Italy and France would gain the initiative, and liberal regimes for which American blood had just been spilt would become absorbed into an expanding Soviet empire without Moscow so much as firing a shot.

Washington and London refused to be intimidated: it was deemed essential to divide Germany, notwithstanding Soviet anger and French anxieties. The “Berlin airlift” got under way. Beginning on 26 June 1948 and lasting until May the following year, American and British pilots supplied twoand-a-half million people in the Western zone of the city with an average of about 5,500 tons of basic necessities every day. The Soviets could have easily interfered with the operation, but they did not. ”31 The success of the Berlin airlift proved just the contrary and, on 23 May 1949, two weeks after Stalin lifted the blockade, the first steps were taken to establish the Federal Republic of Germany (which formally came into being in September 1949).

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