Art of Programming Contest by Ahmed Shamsul Arefin

By Ahmed Shamsul Arefin

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Foo = 1; ... } ) { ... if ( foo ) ... } no declaration of foo is needed in either f2 or or f3, because the external definition of foo appears before them. But if f1 wants to use foo, it has to contain the declaration f1( ) { extern int foo; ... } This is true also of any function that exists on another file; if it wants foo it has to use an extern declaration for it. ) CHAPTER 3 PROGRAMMING IN C: A TUTORIAL 53 There are some hidden pitfalls in external declarations and definitions if you use multiple source files.

A mod b). The results are machine dependent unless a and b are both positive. In arithmetic, char variables can usually be treated like int variables. Arithmetic on characters is quite legal, and often makes sense: c = c + 'A' - 'a'; converts a single lower case ascii character stored in c to upper case, making use of the fact that corresponding ascii letters are a fixed distance apart. The rule governing this arithmetic is that all chars are converted to int before the arithmetic is done. Beware that conversion may involve sign-extension if the leftmost bit of a character is 1, the resulting integer might be negative.

Remember that by convention all character arrays are terminated with a `\0'. = '\0'; s++ ) n++; return(n); } You can now see why we have to say what kind of thing s points to -- if we're to increment it with s++ we have to increment it by the right amount. = '\0'; n++ ); The `*s' returns a character; the `++' increments the pointer so we'll get the next character next time around. As you can see, as we make things more efficient, we also make them less clear. But `*s++' is an idiom so common that you have to know it.

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