By Robert A. Blust
Because the pioneering analyses of Renward Brandstetter (1860–1942) a quasi-morphological aspect referred to as the ‘root’ has been well-known in Austronesian linguistics. This monograph confronts a number of the methodological and important matters raised yet by no means totally resolved by means of Brandstetter. to be able to reconsider the price of his paintings for modern linguistics the writer examines Brandstetter’s tools and effects, and applies a changed from of this method of new fabric. The learn establishes 230 roots in accordance with greater than 2,560 root tokens in a few 117 languages. it really is hence meant to function a rudimentary root dictionary and a simple guide just about the foundation for destiny students of Austronesian.
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Extra resources for Austronesian Root Theory: An Essay on the Limits of Morphology
C1 No. 6 η c D s ñ R d m Ν ζ w C V No. 2 c2 No. 9 Based on the phoneme frequency distributions reported in Table 4 the following general conclusions seem justified: 1) all but two of the roots proposed in Appendix 1 are of the shape CVC. Four others have the shape CV(q). 0% with a nasal. 1% respectively, thus exhibiting the same order of frequency, despite somewhat different absolute values. AUSTRONESIAN ROOT THEORY REVISITED 31 3) the vowel *u appears with a markedly higher frequency than *a in Appendix 1, a some what surprising fact in view of the very different frequencies reported for base morphemes by Chrétien.
3) how do we know that two dissimilar meanings are related? Since this study is primarily diachronic in orientation, evidence for the root must take account of sound correspondences. Where a root candidate has the same phonemic shape in two languages (and the sound correspondences are regular), the relationship of root reflexes is transparent, as with Balinese aŋkeb "covering, lid", Maranao lekeb "lid, cover", root : *keb. Where the phonemic shape of the root candidate is not identical in the languages compared, however, the relationship of root reflexes must be established by further comparison.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. a e bak bek bek gak kab kad kak kaŋ kaŋ3 kas gek keb ked kek keŋ2 keŋ1 kes ked kel kern kep i cit gik kik kiŋ liR mek ñat ŋak ŋaC pak tas Tak Taŋ ŋek ŋeC ŋik ŋiC ŋeŋ ŋiŋ pik pis 1 ris Riŋ) pek pes Reg sek tes ter Tek Teŋ tir Tik Tiŋ u buk buk cut guk kub kud kuk kuŋ kus kud kul kum kup luR muk ñut ŋuk ŋuŋ puk pus2 rus Ruŋ suk tus Tuk Tuŋ MEANING pound, thud ( 0 ) decay; powder squirt out ( 0 ) throaty sound ( 0 ) (un) cover prop, support throaty sound (O) bark; resound ( 0 ) cramps, stiffening of t h e limbs loosen; wrap prop, support curl, bend enclose cover; enclose flow crush, pulverize; crumbs ( 0 ) elastic, stretchy throaty sound ( 0 ) anger, irritation hum, buzz ( 0 ) clap, slap, t h u m p ( 0 ) deflate, be empty rustle ( 0 ) groan.