By Yannick Le Tiec
Microelectronics is a fancy global the place many sciences have to collaborate to create nano-objects: we'd like services in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics additionally crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, in addition to biology, biochemistry and drugs. Chemistry is taken with many fields from fabrics, chemical compounds, gases, beverages or salts, the fundamentals of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleansing of surfaces and selective etching of particular layers. moreover, over contemporary many years, the scale of the transistors has been enormously lowered whereas the performance of circuits has elevated. This ebook involves 5 chapters protecting the chemical substances and sequences utilized in processing, from cleansing to etching, the position and influence in their purity, in addition to the fabrics utilized in “Front finish Of the road” which corresponds to the guts and function of person transistors, then relocating directly to the “Back finish Of the road” that's relating to the interconnection of the entire transistors. eventually, the necessity for particular functionalization additionally calls for key wisdom on floor remedies and chemical administration to permit new applications.
1. Chemistry within the “Front finish of the road” (FEOL): Deposits, Gate Stacks, Epitaxy and Contacts, François Martin, Jean-Michel Hartmann, Véronique Carron and Yannick Le Tiec.
2. Chemistry in Interconnects, Vincent Jousseaume, Paul-Henri Haumesser, Carole Pernel, Jeffery Butterbaugh, Sylvain Maîtrejean and Didier Louis.
3. The Chemistry of rainy floor education: cleansing, Etching and Drying, Yannick Le Tiec and Martin Knotter.
4. The Use and administration of Chemical Fluids in Microelectronics, Christiane Gottschalk, Kevin Mclaughlin, Julie Cren, Catherine Peyne and Patrick Valenti.
5. floor Functionalization for Micro- and Nanosystems: software to Biosensors, Antoine Hoang, Gilles Marchand, Guillaume Nonglaton, Isabelle Texier-Nogues and Francoise Vinet.
About the Authors
Yannick Le Tiec is a technical specialist at CEA-Leti, Minatec when you consider that 2002. he's a CEA-Leti assignee at IBM, Albany (NY) to strengthen the complicated 14 nm CMOS node and the FDSOI expertise. He held diverse technical positions from the complex three hundred mm SOI CMOS pilot line to diversified assignments inside SOITEC for complicated wafer improvement and later inside of INES to optimize sunlight phone ramp-up and yield. He has been a part of the ITRS entrance finish technical operating team at ITRS in view that 2008.
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Additional info for Chemistry in Microelectronics
Chemistry in the FEOL 31 Trisilane, which yields very high growth rates at low temperatures, has, however, several flaws: (1) it is extremely expensive to produce with a quality high enough for nanoelectronics and (2) being liquid, it requires the use of a dedicated bubbler (in which high partial pressures of H2 are used to obtain vapor phase Si3H8) prior to injection into the epitaxy reactor. It is also not always possible to take full advantage of its decomposition at very low temperatures; indeed, Si epitaxial layers grown with Si3H8 at temperatures below 500°C are of lesser crystalline and electronic quality [VIN 10].
The selectivity, which may be defined as the ratio of the nickel etching rate to that of silicide, is quasi-infinite [FRO 03]. 18] Hydrochloric acid (HCl)-based mixtures: aqua regia and HPM. The incorporation of platinum stabilizes the nickel silicide but also creates additional constraints for the use of SPM for the selective etching step. Platinum, as a noble metal is thus difficult to oxidize and so is not etched when using this solution. Platinum atoms that are contained in the nickel Chemistry in the FEOL 49 layer, sputtered from a Ni(Pt) alloy target, are then etched by the “lift-off” phenomenon during the selective SPM removal: as they are in a small enough amount, they are removed during the oxidation/dissolution reaction of the surrounding nickel atoms.
4. 1. 1. A history of silicides in microelectronics The first metallic silicides were initially introduced to microelectronics at the end of the 1970s to improve the contact of MOS devices on the polysilicon gate [IWA 02]. The polycide/polysilicon gate was directly patterned using photolithography and etching of a deposited polycide/polysilicon stack layer according to a quite simple integration scheme. MoSi2 was the first polycide to be used and was replaced by WSi2 from the 1980s onwards, due to its lower resistivity (about 70 µΩ⋅cm vs.