By Eivind J. Øvreli, Kai Tang, Thorvald Engh (auth.), Kazuo Nakajima, Noritaka Usami (eds.)
This quantity provides a finished survey of the technological know-how and know-how of crystal progress of Si for sun cells with emphasis on basic technological know-how. ranging from feedstock, crystal development of bulk crystals (single crystal and multicrystals) and skinny movie crystals are mentioned. a variety of illustrations advertise a comprehension of crystal-growth physics. the elemental wisdom on crystal progress mechanisms bought via this ebook will give a contribution to destiny advancements of novel crystal progress applied sciences for additional development of conversion potency of Si-based sunlight cells.
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Extra info for Crystal Growth of Si for Solar Cells
The same is true for HEM. Furthermore, the less puller stations for the same amount of ingot production also imply the lower personal cost. 4 Crystal Quality Improvement Finally, since crystal quality is directly related to solar cell eﬃciency, it has to be taken into account for the overall PV cost. In general, the sc-Si ingot is pulled in the <100> direction and this is preferred in the alkaline texturing for the inverted pyramids during solar cell fabrication. Also, because (111) slip planes are oblique to the growth direction, dislocations generated can propagated outward to the crystal surface leading to a dislocation-free ingot.
Both molybdenum (Mo) and graphite with coating have been considered for the cone material. 2b shows the photographs of both cones. The lifetime of both cones is long, but the Mo cone is more robust and can be cleaned easily by sand blast. 1 Power and Growth Speed The main purpose of using the cone is to block the thermal radiation from the melt to crystal, so that the crystal can be cooler and pulled faster. 1) where kS and kL are the thermal conductivities of the crystal and melt, while GS and GL are the thermal gradients in the solid and melt, respectively; ρS is the density, ΔH heat of fusion, and V the pulling speed.
6. The FZ setup consists of the upper and lower vertical pulling spindle carrying the polycrystalline feed rod and the thin rod-like seed crystal at their ends, respectively. Between them, the pancake-shaped inductor, a one-turn RF coil is placed for contactless inductive heating. 5 MHz working frequency, until a hanging melt drop is formed and stabilized by the surface tension (Fig. 1a). Then, the seed is moved upwards until it touches the melt drop. After slightly back-melting, the seed is moved downwards and a thin monocrystalline neck is grown to remove all dislocations through the neck surface, after Dash [2, 3].