By Richard E. Tremblay PhD FRSC, Willard W. Hartup EdD, John Archer PhD
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Extra resources for Developmental Origins of Aggression
M. (1998). Life-span theory in developmental psychology. In W. ), R. M. Lerner (Vol. ), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. , pp. 1029–1144). New York: Wiley. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. , & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social learning and imitation. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4(1), 1–103. Bell, R. Q. (1968). A reinterpretation of direction of effects in studies of socialization.
Archer (1989/1990) suggested that, although this is the case in laboratory setups involving repeated painful shocks, an isolated single painful stimulus may under natural conditions evoke anger-induced offensive aggression. Overall, aggressive behavior can be generated by a variety of external stimuli that are threatening or painful, and these stimuli activate, to different degrees, both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. In pain-induced aggression, activation of the nociceptors and/or thermal receptors sets in motion neural pathways that control the expression of aggressive behavior, and, in this case, the threshold for fear is easily reached.
Parental punitiveness or harsh discipline (common measures) are parent characteristics, not dimensions of the parent–child relationship. Similarly, maternal warmth does not describe a relationship between mother and child. Exactly what this omission means for research is not really known. Diana Baumrind (1971) had considerable success earlier in describing permissive relationships between parents and children and showing that these were associated with early ag- The Development of Aggression 15 gression.