By Keith Richardson
This transparent and authoritative textual content offers a trenchant critique of dichotomous considering and is going directly to describe and exemplify another view of improvement, displaying the facility of ecological and dynamic structures views. Thematic chapters establish the vintage assumptions of the nature-nurture debate and current the reader with new methods of considering those concerns. The publication starts off with fabric which may be regular to scholars, then leads them into components of idea that could be much less general yet that are vital and critical points of present examine and debate within the box. the writer indicates how another, ecological platforms point of view can be utilized to shape extra coherent reviews of significant theorists like Skinner, Piaget, Vygotsky, and Gibson.
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Extra resources for Developmental Psychology: How Nature and Nurture Interact
Now Goodwin is writing about physical form but exactly the same argument must apply to psychological form, that is, movement and thought. He writes about the emergence of a fixed structure, a tetrapod limb, but the emergence of jumping as a preferred mode of locomotion on the moon, is just as much a (relatively) stable form. In both cases the form of thinking is identical. Just as jumping, a stable form of action, emerged, was selected, from the incredibly complex sum of interacting forces, so the tetrapod limb emerged as a stable form of orga nization of bones, etc.
Is not some fundamental level of invariant, ultimate control [preformation, blueprint - my addition], but complex, interactive systems with cascading levels of organization and numerous feedback systems. Richardson himself (1998, p. 58) asserts: We now know that the rhetoric of genetic determinism is quite wrong. Genes by themselves do not 'make' proteins, 'self-replicate', 'control', 'constrain', 'programme' or issue 'instructions' for anything; neither do they 'express' them selves ... Genes are best thought of as resources utilised by a dynamic system in a regulated manner.
As Gottlieb puts it, 'genes do not make behav iour happen, even though behaviour won't happen without them' (1997, Preface, p. xiii). Exactly the same is true for envi ronments. The point is to find forms of explanation which take due account of the need for all the interacting elements to cooccur and which do not take their contingent occurrence for granted. There are simpler arguments. Genes do not become more complex so they cannot explain the increasing complexity we see in development. Further, as every single cell in an organ ism contains the same genes, then if the genes alone are the instructions the changes in every cell must be identical.