Macro-Engineering (Water Science and Technology Library) by V. Badescu, R.B. Cathcart, R.D. Schuiling

By V. Badescu, R.B. Cathcart, R.D. Schuiling

Macro-engineering contains the large-scale amendment and manipulation of average platforms for the advantage of mankind. the first targets of a few Earth-based macroprojects defined during this e-book are strength creation, land reclamation, nutrients creation, weather swap, setting, water, shipping and coastal security. different Earth or house tasks thought of the following have a extra futuristic ring, yet our present-day technical ability makes their cognizance attainable. Earth-based macroprojects frequently mix various elements and goals. they've got a massive influence at the ecology of a quarter and the inhabitant's technique of dwelling (like tourism, fishing, shipping). Its results will be felt all over the world, just like the upward push in worldwide sea point after the damming and evaporation of huge ocean gulfs for energy construction, or the switch in weather following the nearby aid of sunlight insolation. every one venture will dramatically swap the lives of the folk affected. it could actually offer them with a greater way of life, on the expense of a fast edition to a replaced atmosphere and a replaced lifestyle. this can impress transitority geopolitical and social unrest. Macro-engineering contributes to sustainable growth, however it needs to first conquer the social, political and cost-effective hindrances in its manner.

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The conditions were favorable for the appearance of life. A tiny fraction of the energy of the solar rays was used to form complicated organic compounds together with oxygen from the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the water at the surface. A small fraction of these compounds did not end up as carbon dioxide, but was stored in the soil of the earth, and a small fraction of the oxygen remained in the atmosphere. Oxygen is a chemically active element, nearly all chemical elements and all compounds of carbon with hydrogen burn readily.

It shows a lens of chromite ore in a dunitic host rock. The chromite lens shows a number of parallel tension cracks filled with white magnesite. At the places where the cracks pinch out into the dunite rock, the dunite has reacted to form serpentine. Obviously, the fluids that cause these reactions are mainly mixtures of water and CO2 in varying proportions: (1) 2 Mg2 SiO4 + CO2 + 2H2 O → Mg3 Si2 O5 OH 4 + MgCO3 olivine serpentine magnesite The reaction has been experimentally verified in an autoclave, where fine-grained olivine was kept in a water-saturated steam mixture at 200 C and a pressure of CO2 of 36 bar for 24 hours.

In this report it is confirmed that dry carbonation is not successful, and that so far all technologies for mineral sequestration of CO2 are uneconomical, but that the direct aqueous carbonation route has the best prospects. Nature also suggests that a two-step reaction might be more favorable. When hot fluids pass through olivine-rich rocks at shallow depth, the rocks are transformed into a mixture of serpentine and magnesite (for the chemical formula of these minerals, see the reaction equation below).

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