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Now we shall elucidate factors which determine the J- and H-aggregation state. At first, we shall consider the H-aggregation state obtained from structure analyses of single crystals. 39nm) so that further interdigitation is prevented by the short interaction between them. This fact shows that the difference in the number of carbon atoms between the spacer part and the tail part becomes a very important factor of packing in the H-crystals. That is, from the geometrical point of view, the difference in the number of carbon atoms (m-n) must be 2 or larger than 2 when the azobenzene chromophores duster together in the H-aggregation state.
Next we shall consider the J-aggregation states. Although we observed J-aggregation states even for the H-group compounds, single crystals were obtained only from those compounds with a spacer length of 5. The number of spacer carbon atoms seems to be very important for single crystals of J-compounds. This was explained by considering the packing density. That is, since the cross-section of the azobenzene moiety is larger than that of the alkyl chain, total packing energy will become low when the length of the alkyl spacer is similar to that of azobenzene moiety.
Miyano and A. Moil, Thin Solid Films, 168 (1989) 141. 45. W. Hickel, G. Appel, D. Lupo, W. Prass and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films, 210/211 (1992) 182. 46. T. Kuri, N. Honda, Y. Oishi and T. Kajiyama, Chem. , (1994) 2223. New Developments in Construction and Functions of Organic Thin Films T. Kajiyama and M. V. All rights reserved. 39 C r y s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g of s y n t h e t i c bilayer m e m b r a n e s K. Okuyama a and M. Shimomura b aDepartment of Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184, Japan bResearch Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060, Japan A senes of aggregation structures of bilayer forming azobenzene amphiphiles, CnAzoCmN+Br -, both in single crystals and cast films was determined by the X-ray diffraction method and uv-visible absorption spectroscopy.